Curriculum,  Education

Instructional Strategies

The Anytown Public Schools (APS) provide all students with multiple pathways to optimize their potential for academic excellence, leadership, as well as social and emotional wellness. Teachers work from a rigorous curriculum that is aligned with state standards incorporating the common core, and they use multiple forms of data that informs innovative approaches to teaching. Student success is anchored in the high expectations of teachers who are part of a professional, collaborative culture that demands a continuous focus on instructional improvement.
At APS, the primary focus is on the instructional core, which includes curriculum, instruction, and assessment, as well as the teaching methodologies of differentiated instruction and Universal Design for Learning (UDL). APS believes that a focus on the instructional core is what enables students, and ultimately school districts to become successful. This annotated bibliography illustrates recent educational research and a historical perspective on curriculum and instruction that will enlighten readers as to why APS places the central focus on the instructional core. This annotated bibliography strives to be inclusive to all aspects of education at APS, including general education, special education, specialist subjects, and preschool through high school levels.
This annotated bibliography presents research on literature relevant to the model of curriculum and instruction used at APS. Literature was selected based on the following criteria:

  1. Scholarly excellence
  2. Peer reviewed research
  3. Contributions within the field of curriculum

An annotation of each reference has been included along with a full citation in APA format. The resources cited include a compilation of books, academic research, and journal articles. This annotated bibliography is organized around the three areas of curriculum and instruction utilized at APS, and presents literature relevant to each area:

  1. General curriculum and instruction
  2. Differentiated instruction
  3. Universal Design of Learning

Curriculum is fundamentally a design for teaching and learning, focusing on knowledge and skills that are considered important to learn. Instruction is the process by which learning is achieved. The intent of differentiated instruction is to recognize that students have varying background knowledge, readiness, language, and learning styles, and thus provide instruction accordingly. UDL is a methodology for creating instructional goals, methods, materials, and assessments that work for all learners and can be customized and adjusted for individual needs.
This document is a platform that will provide staff and families with an efficient way to understand the concepts of differentiated instruction, UDL, and curriculum. Based on the growing documentation of best practice in APS, and the most reliable national and international academic research, this document can provide an additional resource that reinforces our philosophy of curriculum and instruction. This annotated bibliography supports the dimensions and elements of the APS model of curriculum and instruction, as it has been successfully applied in a range of school contexts. The annotated bibliography does not attempt to provide a comprehensive listing of all research literature in this area. Rather its purpose is to highlight key readings that can be consulted in order to understand the rationale behind the development of the APS model of curriculum and instruction. Its intent is to provide valuable knowledge and pave the path to the discovery of curriculum resources and information that can support educators and families.
All research cited in this annotated bibliography is readily accessible through standard library sources and, where possible, via the Web. The publications reviewed here represent merely a portion of the information currently available on curriculum and instruction, differentiated instruction and UDL.
Annotated Bibliography
Curriculum and Instruction
Armstrong, T., & Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (2009).
Multiple intelligences in the classroom. Alexandria, Va: Association for Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom, author Thomas Armstrong has updated his guide for educators, to incorporate new research from Gardner. Gardner’s original theory of multiple intelligences included seven intelligences; linguistic, logical-mathematical, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. This edition includes information on the eighth intelligence (the naturalist), and the ninth intelligence (the existential). Additionally, the author references to and corroborates Gardner’s research on multiple intelligences from curriculum scholars such as Harvey Silver, Richard Strong, and Matthew Perini. This edition applies the challenging curriculum theory of Multiple Intelligences (MI) to practical school-based matters.
The author supplies information and resources which may help educators at all levels apply MI theory to their current practice. The book includes authentic examples from public schools and districts. Clearly written and easy to read, educators will find it useful for experimenting with multiple intelligences in their classroom instruction. It will allow educators to expand their learning strategies beyond the typical linguistic and logical ones predominantly used in today’s classrooms. Thomas Armstrong, an educator and psychologist from Sonoma County, California, has more than 27 years of teaching experience, from the primary through the doctoral level. He is the author of two other books, Awakening Genius in the Classroom and ADD/ADHD Alternatives in the Classroom.
Castagnera, E., (U.S.). (2003). Deciding what to teach and how to teach it: Connecting students through curriculum and instruction. Colorado Springs, Colo: PEAK Parent Center, Inc.
This book offers real-world advice to ensure that all students participate and learn successfully in secondary general education classrooms. It provides families and teachers with practical strategies for meeting the diverse needs of all students in the inclusive general education classroom. The book offers a process for responding to three basic questions about effective curriculum and instruction: (1) Is it grounded in the general education curriculum? (2) Is it delivered to the maximum extent possible in the general education classroom? (3) Is it varied and tailored to the unique needs of each student.
The book is heavily geared toward general education teachers who need strategies for the integration of students with mental retardation into the general classroom. Additionally, it is useful for high school teachers working with the inclusion model of integrating special education students into their general education high school classes. Author Elizabeth Castagnera is a high school teacher in San Diego. She supports students with disabilities in her general education classes.
Crawford, J. (2012). Aligning your curriculum to the common core state standards.
Thousand Oaks, Calif: Corwin Press.
This book assists teachers and administrators with a practical structure for aligning local standards to the common core. It may be helpful to superintendents, school administrators, and principals who may be thinking of implementing the common core state standards in their districts. The author provides help with the collective teacher attitude that the common core may be a short-lived trend. Crawford strongly believes, that if adapted and used properly, the common core state standards will improve student performance.
Additionally, the book includes methodology for connecting formative assessments to instructional objectives and ways to scaffold learning experiences. Joe Crawford spent 36 years in public education at the high school, junior high, middle school, and district level as an English teacher, assistant principal, principal, and assistant superintendent focusing on improving student performance.
Glatthorn, A. A., Keroack, E. C., & Massachusetts Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. (2003). Using state frameworks to develop quality curricula for Massachusetts schools. Wellesley, Mass: Massachusetts Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
This book provides teachers and administrators with the basic elements of curriculum design. It stresses that knowledge and theory of curriculum development, instruction, and assessment will serve the basis for a coherent curriculum. Readers will acquire skills that will provide the basis for sound decisions about curriculum design. It is a “beginner’s book” on curriculum. It would be useful for novice teachers, parents, and those in need of information regarding basic curriculum design. The book is heavily reliant upon the information from the Massachusetts State Frameworks. Allan Glatthorn and Elizabeth Keroack are retired Massachusetts school administrators and serve as educational consultants for Teachers21.
Goffin, S. G., & ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education. (2000). The role of curriculum models in early childhood education. Champaign, IL: ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, University of Illinois.
Author Stacie Goffin is president of the Goffin Strategy Group which designs, facilitates, and implements educational strategic initiatives for states, national groups, and others. This digest discusses the role of curriculum in early childhood education. It is applicable to administrators, teachers, and parents of early childhood learners. The digest provides readers with the history of early childhood education and presents a practical overview of early childhood curriculum models. Based on the author’s experiences, she suggests that there may be potentially negative consequences associated with a highly structured, academic preschool program. The author presents an argument of whether early childhood curriculum can improve quality or lower expectations for early childhood educators.
Kliebard, H. M. (1987). The struggle for the American curriculum, 1893-1958. New
York: Routledge & Kegan Paul.
Herbert M. Kliebard is Professor Emeritus of Educational Policy Studies and Curriculum and Instruction at the University of Wisconsin at Madison. Herbert M. Kliebard is a prolific author and scholar on the subject of curriculum. The author presents an analysis of curriculum studies and the history of American education that is an invaluable sourcebook for teachers and administrators.
In the third edition, Kliebard expands and clarifies his historical overview of the people, movements, theories, and curricular reforms between the Great Depression and the post-World War II period. Additionally, the author provides an interpretation of the efforts of John Dewey to transform the American curriculum. The origins and development of vocational education as the single most significant curricular innovation of the 20th century are also discussed. This book is useful for anyone who is looking for a historical view of American education and curriculum.
Pinar, W. (2004). What is curriculum theory?. Mahwah, N.J: Lawrence Erlbaum. William Pinar is an American educator and curriculum scholar.
Known for his work in the area of curriculum theory, Pinar is strongly associated with the reconceptualist movement in curriculum theory since the early 1970s. This primer is intended for prospective and practicing educators. Pinar presents curriculum theory as the interdisciplinary study of educational experience. Within this book, Pinar offers an interpretation of current school reform policies and practices. Pinar’s bias in evident regarding his view that public education is dominated by a conservative agenda based on a business model of education focused on student’s performance on standardized tests. The book is appropriate for readers looking for an overview of curriculum, foundations of education, educational policy, school reform, and teacher education.
Zemelman, S., Daniels, H., & Hyde, A. A. (2005). Best practice: Today’s standards for teaching and learning in America’s schools. Portsmouth, N.H: Heinemann.
Steven Zemelman, Harvey Daniels, and Arthur Hyde are frequent collaborators on professional books for teachers. Focusing on school reform, this book draws from national reports, research summaries, and professional position papers to provide explanations of what constitutes instructional excellence in all curriculum areas. The most helpful portion of this book was the best practices for reading, writing, Mathematics, science, social studies, visual arts, music, dance, and theater, for all grade levels. The book was interesting and easy to read. It would be appropriate for parents, teachers, and administrators. The book’s main premise is that meaningful school reform should take at least three years. There is no magic bullet to improve student performance. Best Practice instructs educators in the process of reform in a school environment dedicated to school reform.
Differentiated Instruction
Armstrong, T., Hanson, R. M., National Professional Resources, Inc., & Insight Media (Firm). (2002). The genius in every child. Port Chester, NY: National Professional Resources.
In this book, Armstrong and Hanson assert that every student is a genius. They cite the 12 qualities of genius as curiosity, playfulness, imagination, creativity, wonder, wisdom, inventiveness, vitality, sensitivity, flexibility, humor, and joy. Based on Armstrong’s book Awakening Genius in the Classroom, The Genius in Every Child teaches parents, educators, and caregivers how to nurture and develop the genius in every school age child. The authors provide the reader with theoretical, neurological, evolutionary, biographical, and phenomenological research to support their assertion. The authors explore the role of the home in terms of emotional dysfunction, poverty, lifestyles, and family ideologies. Additionally, they explore the role of the school in terms of curriculum functions such as testing and grading, labeling and tracking, textbooks and worksheet learning. Furthermore, Armstrong and Hanson explore the role of the popular media has on genius in so far as stereotypical images and dull language.
The authors provide teachers with some practical examples of how to awaken genius in the classroom, creating a genial climate in the classroom, freedom to choose, open-ended exploration, freedom from judgment, honoring every student’s experience, and believing in every student’s genius. The authors encourage teachers to allow students to be the creators of their own curriculum and learning. This book is enjoyable to read and is suitable for parents and educators. Thomas Armstrong, Ph.D. is an award-winning author and speaker with over thirty-five years of teaching experience from the primary
through the doctoral level. Robert Hanson is a life-long educator and currently a consultant for Insight Media.
The author explores emerging scientific insights into how the human brain functions. Written for educators, this book discusses the brain’s natural learning systems as a neurobiological framework for educational practice and curriculum development, based on the brain’s natural learning systems, emotional, social, cognitive, physical, and the reflective learning system. The author highlights the teaching roles and behaviors associated with each system to illustrate how teachers can inhibit or facilitate passion, vision, intention, action, and reflection in classroom settings. Although somewhat difficult to read, the book is suitable for parents or teachers interested in the application
of neuroscience to education. Barbara K. Given is an Associate Professor at the Graduate School of Education at George Mason University in Fairfax, Virginia, where she initiated the Special Education Teacher Preparation Program. She has written several articles relating brain research to education.
Mamchur, C. M. (1996). A teacher’s guide to cognitive type theory & learning style.
Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. T
he author’s assertion is that No Child Left Behind (NCLB) has mandated teachers to become parents, police officers, caregivers, and instructors. The book is intended to help teachers understand the natural learning style patterns and behaviors in order to handle them in a way that empowers students. Understanding individual learning preferences
and identifying different types of learners, such as the extraverted, introverted, sensing, intuitive, thinking, feeling, judging, and perceiving learners is explored. Heavily steeped in the relevance of NCLB in current educational practice, this book continues to be a valuable resource to teachers, as a primer to veteran teachers investigating a methodology of teaching and curriculum development that is diverse and adaptive enough to meet the various learning style needs of all students. Dr. Carolyn Mamchur is a professor of language arts at Simon Fraser University.
Silver, H. F., Strong, R. W., & Perini, M. J. (2000). So each may learn: Integrating learning styles and multiple intelligences. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
This book demonstrates how teachers can use integrated learning approaches to improve curriculum, instruction, and assessment and to help students become more reflective, self- aware learners.Authors Strong and Perini explore the challenges of setting good ideas into practice after attending professional development workshops. It supplies teachers with strategies to cope when new ideas conflict with existing school culture or procedures. The book presents concrete examples of teaching with an awareness of multiple intelligences and learning styles. The authors provide teachers with classroom examples, activities, organizers, self-assessments, and lesson-planning templates for all grade levels and subjects.
Harvey F. Silver is the author of numerous books for educators, including the best-selling Teaching Styles and Strategies. Harvey is a member of the advisory board of the International Creative and Innovative Thinking Association. Richard W. Strong is the cofounder of the Institute for Community and Difference, studying democratic teaching practices in public and private schools for more than 10 years. Richard has written and developed several educational books and products, including Questioning Styles and Strategies for the Thoughtful Education Press and the Teaching Strategies Video Library for the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2001). How to differentiate instruction in mixed-ability classrooms.
Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. Tomlinson is a prominent author in the area of differentiated instruction. The author offers a definition of differentiated instruction, and provides principles and strategies designed to help teachers create learning environments and develop curriculum that addresses different learning styles, interests, and readiness levels found in a typical mixed-ability classroom. Additionally, she explores the rationale for differentiated instruction in mixed-ability classrooms, the role of the teacher in a differentiated classroom, the learning environment in a differentiated classroom, and the adaptation of curriculum. She offers educators with methods for managing a differentiated classroom and strategies for preparing students and parents for a differentiated classroom. She provides best practice in lesson planning with differentiation by readiness, by interest, and by learning style. Written as a guide for educators, Tomlinson provides additional information on grading in a differentiated classroom. Any educator interested in differentiated instruction would find this book beneficial to their professional library.
Carol Ann Tomlinson is Associate Professor of Educational Leadership, Foundations and Policy at The Curry School of Education, University of Virginia. Tomlinson works with teachers throughout the United States and Canada toward establishing more effectively differentiated classrooms, and is Co-Director of the University of Virginia’s Summer Institute on Academic Diversity.
Tomlinson, C. A. (2005). The differentiated classroom: Responding to the needs of all learners. Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
Drawing from research in curriculum and best practices on learning, Tomlinson presents a convincing case that differentiation will help larger numbers of students flourish in the classroom. The author explores the definition of differentiated learning and the differentiated classroom. Additionally, she explores the elements of differentiation as well as learning environments and curriculum that support differentiated instruction. Teachers who read this book will find useful information on building differentiated classrooms and instructional strategies that support all learners. Teachers will learn how to divide their time, resources, and efforts to effectively instruct students of diverse backgrounds, readiness levels, skill levels, interests, and ways of learning.
Carol Ann Tomlinson is Associate Professor of Educational Leadership, Foundations and Policy at The Curry School of Education, University of Virginia. Tomlinson works with teachers throughout the United States and Canada toward establishing more effectively differentiated classrooms, and is Co-Director of the University of Virginia’s Summer Institute on Academic Diversity.
Wolfe, P. (2010). Brain matters: Translating research into classroom practice.
Alexandria, Va: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.
In this book, the author examines the mysteries of the brain. The book contains a short course on brain anatomy including: neurons and subcortical structures, the cortex, sensory memory, working memory, and long-term memory. Skillfully, the author makes curriculum connections to meaningful problems, projects, and simulations. Additionally, the author examines how visual and auditory senses enhance learning. Through this text, teachers and parents will discover how the brain encodes, manipulates, and stores information and how this information can be used to enhance learning.
Patricia Wolfe is an independent consultant who speaks to educators and parents in schools across the United States. Her professional background includes work as a public school teacher, staff development trainer for the Upland (California) School District, Director of Instruction for the Napa County Office of Education, and lead trainer for the International Principal Training Center in Rome and London.
Universal Design for Learning
Casper, B., Leuchovius, D., National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, Minneapolis, MN., & PACER Center, Inc., Minneapolis, MN. (2005). Universal design for learning and the transition to a more challenging academic curriculum: Making it in middle school and beyond. National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET), University of Minnesota.
This brief gives a general description of Universal Design for Learning (UDL). It is intended for middle and secondary school parents and educators. This brief provides the basic idea and design for the UDL environment, curricula, and products that can be used to meet the needs of all users. Additionally, this brief refers to the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) and provides suggestions for parents so that they can implement UDL in the home. The brief also describes how UDL works for students with moderate to severe disabilities.
Deborah Leuchovius has directed PACER’s national transition-focused training and technical assistance project, the Technical Assistance on Transition and the Rehabilitation Act Project (TATRA) since 1994. Beth Casper, from the National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, is the author of many educational articles.
Cutrim, S. E. (December 01, 2008). Potential pedagogical benefits and drawbacks of multimedia use in the English language classroom equipped with interactive whiteboard technology. Computers & Education, 51, 4, 1553-1568.
This paper is intended for middle and secondary school educators interested in utilizing interactive white board technology in their classrooms. This paper was divided into three sections. The first section discussed the benefits of using interactive whiteboards for presenting concepts to students in the classroom. It rationalizes some of the potential pedagogical benefits of using interactive whiteboards and Universal Design for Learning. The second section explores the challenges of using interactive white boards, and the potential drawbacks of using multimedia in teaching. Some of the drawbacks include access to and sustainability of technological equipment in schools. The final section explores the potential pedagogical implications of literacy and multimedia instruction. This section considers the effects of teaching literacy through multimedia projects and the value of promoting digital literacy in the English classroom. Dr. Schmid is an educator and researcher of teaching and learning with interactive white boards.
Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. (2004). Universal design for learning (UDL): Reaching all, teaching all. Delaware State Department of Education.
Commissioned by the Delaware State Department of Education, this report discusses the origins of UDL and the purpose that UDL serves. The article explores the history of UDL and its origins of providing universal access to buildings. Furthermore, it discusses the brain connection and the implications of using UDL in teaching and learning. This article provides both the pros and cons for the use of this model. This document examines: (1) what UDL is and is not; (2) UDL and the link to the brain; (3) benefits of universal design; (4) UDL lessons learned; (5) implications for teachers; (6) implementation of UDL; and (7) UDL resources. This article would be appropriate for any educator or parent anticipating an introduction to UDL.
Edyburn, D. L. (2006). Failure is not an option: Collecting, reviewing, and acting on evidence for using technology to enhance academic performance. Learning & Leading with Technology, 34(1), 20-23.
This is a very well written article on the use of technology for remediating the achievement gap. Although many teachers recognize a serious gap in some learner’s abilities, the proper cognitive supports may not be employed. Often underutilized in the classroom, the author discusses the various technologies that can create cognitive supports for struggling learners. The author suggests that different technology hardware and software may be used unconventionally in some cases. The article suggests that the concepts of differentiated instruction and UDL can be obtained with technology tools. This would be an excellent resource for both parents and educators looking to employ technology to close the achievement gap.
Dave Edyburn teaches in the areas of mild disabilities related to learning and behavior. His research investigates the use of technology to enhance teaching, learning, and performance. He has authored over 150 articles on the use of technology in special education.
Grogan, D., & Ruzic, R. (2000). Walking the walk: Universal design on the web. Journal of Special Education Technology, 15(3), 45-49.
This article addresses the creation of the Center for Applied Special Technology (CAST) website and website accessibility. Three questions were asked during the building process: (1) what are the goals of the web site (2) what barriers are present in a web environment, and (3) how will the web site be evaluated to make sure that is obtaining its goals? It delves into the area of web site accessibility by examining the federal requirements outlined in Section 508 (the “Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility Standards,” authorized by the Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board) as well as the Web Content Accessibility Guidelines version 2 (WCAG2), and recommendations of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). This review is useful for parents, teachers, or anyone interested in website accessibility. Additionally, it provides the reader with a rubric for judging whether or not a website is accessible.
Dr. Ruzic has taught research methods and academic writing at both the undergraduate and graduate levels and currently teaches research design and advises doctoral students in the School of Leadership and Education Sciences at the University of San Diego. David Grogan is an educational web developer at CAST.
Harac, L. (2004). A level playing field. Teacher Magazine, 16(2), 40-45.
Written in 2004, this article demonstrates some of the early understanding and origins of CAST and the UDL learning model. It discusses the premise of the original purpose of UDL, which was to provide a better education for students with special needs. CAST’s goal was to demonstrate the success they were having with special needs students and attempt to influence the government into altering the current IDEA (Individual’s with Disabilities Education Act) in order to mainstream the use of technologies in the general classroom. The article describes how CAST’s original intentions have taken on a much larger realm of influence. This article printed in Teacher Magazine is an introduction to UDL and CAST for educators and parents alike. Lani Harac is an assistant editor for Teacher Magazine.
Kortering, L., McClannon, T., Braziel, P., & National Center on Secondary Education and Transition, Minneapolis, MN. (2005). What algebra and biology students have to say about universal design for learning. Research to practice brief. Volume 4, Issue 2. National Center on Secondary Education and Transition. Institute on Community Integration, University of Minnesota.
No Child Left Behind has placed increased emphasis on the secondary students ability to succeed in the general education environment. This article discusses the importance of using alternative measures to help below average students feel success in learning by increasing access to multiple means of action and expression for the engagement of all students. The article includes a comparison of the reported perceptions of mainstreamed students with high incidence disabilities, learning disabilities, behavioral disorders, or other health impairments under Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act, to that of their general education peers. This article may be useful for professional development in that it can form the basis for discussion of the implications of UDL in the high school setting.
Additionally, this article would be appropriate for secondary school teachers, parents of general and special education students. Larry J. Kortering and Terry W. McClannon are professors at Appalachian State University, and Patricia M. Braziel is a contributing editor to the National Secondary Transition Technical Assistance Center.
Lieberman, L. J., Lytle, R. K., & Clarcq, J. A. (2008). Getting it right from the start: Employing the universal design for learning approach to your curriculum. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance (JOPERD), 79(2), 32-39.
This article explores UDL from the physical education perspective. This article discusses the challenges of employing UDL in a physical education or movement class. It discusses the FAMME (functional approach to modifying movement experiences) model, an approach to creating modifications for lessons in order to enhance the learning of all students regardless of their physical ability level. The article stresses a focus on the clarification of goals, preparation of equipment, and the accessibility for all students in a physical education environment. It is an inspiring article about the application of UDL in a specialist environment, and how all staff in any discipline can use this learning model. This article would be appropriate for all teachers. Dr. Lauren J. Lieberman is a professor in the Department of Kinesiology, Sport Studies, and Physical Education at the College of Brockport.
Spooner, F., Baker, J. N., Harris, A. A., Ahlgrim-Delzell, L., & Browder, D. M. (2007).
Effects of training in universal design for learning on lesson plan development. Remedial and Special Education, 28(2), 108-116.
This study provided the research results of a simple one-hour long UDL training session to a control group of college educators. The researchers were able to increase teacher awareness of UDL applications by asking the teacher to create and evaluate their own UDL lesson. The findings indicated that teachers who created their own UDL lessons quickly saw the value of UDL. This article can be utilized as a model for professional development to provide teachers with an understanding of the importance of getting started in the UDL process. It outlines a very simple procedure to get started with UDL lesson planning. The study would be appropriate for both special education and regular education teachers and administrators. The authors are educational researchers at Colorado State University.
Zhang, Y. (September 06, 2005). Collaborative professional development model: Focusing on universal design for technology utilization. ERS Spectrum, 23, 3, 31-
This empirical study focuses on a collaborative model that was created between a middle school and a college of education. This joint professional development project encompassed technological learning as well as the basic understandings of UDL. Aiding teachers to learn the concepts of engagement through technology created more differentiated instruction approaches for all teachers. This article delves into the process of creating a team for UDL and technology professional development. The process outlined in this article could be recreated for teachers participating in UDL and technology professional development. This article would be appropriate for middle school teachers working in teams with the support of a Technology Integration Specialist. Not included in this study were the results of the author’s research. Yixin Zhang is an assistant professor in the School of Information at the University of Texas at Austin.

I am a learning experience design consultant focused on developing engaging learning experiences. Although my career has always been related to education in some way, I have worked as a technology director, curriculum specialist, college professor, and now an online instructional designer.